The varieties of Pears
The pear is a fresh fruit grown all over the world: nowadays, in fact there are many varieties of pears cultivated for the international fruit and vegetable market and in particular as to the world production of pears stand out China and Europe (Italy, Spain, France and Germany are the major European producers of pears).
Pears are a type of fruit and vegetable product that can be consumed fresh or used in cuisine (for example in the preparation and in the decorations of cakes or for jams), or in the industry (such as for example for the production of fruit juices and cider).
As there are countless varieties of pears cultivated and present on the world fruit and vegetable market, pears are an easy available product throughout the year; in fact, there are summer varieties of pears and winter varieties of pears, different varieties as to the ripening period, and they can be very different in colour, size, shape and taste.
The most known summer and winter varieties of pears in the fruit and vegetable sector are:
- WILLIAM (or BARTLETT): variety of pear selected in England at the end of the eighteenth century. It is roundish, with a light green very thin skin and a white, juicy, sweet flesh with a flavour of Muscat. It is the most produced and exported type of fresh fruit in Italy and it is available on the fruit and vegetable market from August until October/November. As well as consumed as table fresh fruit, this variety of pear is largely used in the industry for the production of pear juices and syrups.
- RED WILLIAM ( or MAX RED BARTLETT): variety of pears deriving from a mutation of the “William” pear. Pears are medium and their skin is smooth, yellow-reddish, rusty next to the short petiole with irregular stains of rust on the surface. The ivory flesh is juicy and sweet-acidic. This variety of pears is available on the fruit and vegetable market from August to January, it is quite resistant to handling and can be kept in the refrigerator for 3-4 months.
- ABATE FETEL: variety of pears native to France in the XIX century. The fruit is large (weighing even more than 250 gr.), elongated, flask-shaped, with a green-yellowish skin blushed with red on the part exposed to sunlight and partially rusty. The flesh is white, gritty, slightly flavoured, very juicy, sugary and extremely aromatic and palatable. This variety of pear is very resistant and keeps well in the refrigerator until the first days of January. In Italy, this rare variety of pear is produced only in the region of Emilia, where it received the P.G.I. recognition.
- CONFERENCE: fall variety of pears, native to England at the end of the Nineteenth century. It is a variety of pear, with medium fruits, conical-elongated with a long, thin and curved petiole. This fresh fruit has a green-yellow skin, partially rusty, while the flesh is fine, ivory-white, very juicy, little acidic, sweet and nicely flavoured. This variety of pears is very appreciated and thus is very widespread in the fruit and vegetable markets of the European Union countries, apart from being a pear that can keep until December/January if harvested at the beginning of the ripening period and stored in the refrigerator
- SPINELLA: variety of pears with medium fruits, quite stubby, with a long and strong petiole. The skin of this variety of pears is yellow, stained with red and widely speckled. The flesh of this fresh fruit is firm, not very juicy and sweet. Pears of this variety are harvested in October/November and keep until March/April. As well as being consumed as fresh fruit, this pear is mainly used cooked or in the preparation of “vino cotto" (Italian wine) to add tannins and sugars to the must.
- PASSA CRASSANA: variety of pears native to France at the half of the Nineteenth century. The fruit is large, with a long and straight petiole. This pear has a green skin turning yellow when ripe and often rusty next to the petiole. There is also a red variety of this pear with a typical rusty colour on almost all the surface of the fruit. The flesh of this pear is white and gritty, with a good flavour. This is a variety of pears that has increasingly reduced its presence on the market in the the fruit and vegetable sector in favour of the William pear. Fruits are harvested in October, they are very resistant and keep well.
- DECANA DEL COMIZIO: fall variety of pears native to France. This pear is roundish and large, with a smooth, yellow-green skin, which is often blushed with red on the part exposed to sunlight and rusty. The flesh is white, fine and firm, slightly flavoured, sweet, juicy and slightly acidic. It is a variety of pears very susceptible to handling and thus to bruises: therefore it must be harvested and processed with finesse. Decana is a variety of pears very suitable to be cooked, and in particular for the preparation of jams and fruit juices.
- KAISER (also called BUTIRRA, BOSC OR ALEXANDER): old fall variety of pears, native to France and nowadays very widespread and traded in several EU countries. It is a variety of pears with large, elongated fruits with a long and curved petiole. The skin is tobacco brown with many lenticels and completely rusty. The flesh of this pear is white-yellowish, slightly gritty, flavoured, sweet-acidic and juicy. The fruits of this variety of pears are harvested during the second decade of September and can be kept until December if stored in the refrigerator.
- ANGELYS: the Angelys pears are among the latest varieties of pears arrived on the market. Obtained in France, these pears are large (can weigh up to 300 gr.), short-ovoid, sometimes irregular. The skin is resistant and bronze. The flesh is melting, fine, juicy, flavoured and aromatic. This variety is suitable to be kept and for this reason is available on the market until the end of June.
- BUTIRRA HARDY: variety of pears native to France. It is a variety of pears with medium-large ovoid and varying fruits. The skin of this pear is rough, yellow-bronze and widely rusty. The fine flesh is nicely flavoured, juicy, sweet but slightly acidic. The fruits of this variety of pears are harvested from mid-August until the end of September; this pear does not keep well: if harvested some days earlier can be stored in the refrigerator for a couple of months.
- BUTIRRA PRECOCE MORETTINI: summer variety of pears that managed to dominate very well the Italian fruit and vegetable market and later all the European fruit and vegetable market. This pear is medium or medium-large, its skin is smooth, light yellow, widely blushed with red on the side exposed to sunlight. The flesh of this variety of pears is firm and whitish, slightly aromatic, juicy and sugary. This pear ripens at the end of July and keeps well.
- CARMEN: variety of pears with medium-large fruits (about 190 gr.), elongated and slanting at the top. The skin of this pear is yellow-green blushed with red on the 20-30% of the surface, with large and evident lenticels. The flesh of the pear is medium fine, flavoured and juicy. It is harvested at the end of July and the fruits of this variety of pears are quite resistant to handling and transports; it keeps well if stored in the refrigerator.
- COSCIA: variety of pears native to Italy with medium—small fruits. The skin of this pear is smooth and thin, light green turning intense yellow with evident red stains on the side exposed to sunlight, when ripe. The flesh of this pear is cream-white, gritty, slightly flavoured, juicy and sugary.
- Dr. GUYOT: variety of pears called after the French researcher who selected it in the mid-Twentieth century. The skin of this pear is yellow-green and has many lenticels. This variety is irregular and roundish. The flesh of the Dr. GUYOT pear is yellowish, gritty, juicy and sugary. Variety of pear available from July to August.
- CLAPP’S FAVORITE: variety of pears native to America. This pear is large, roundish, slightly stubby, with a smooth, yellow skin, very stained and blushed with bright red on the side exposed to sunlight. The flesh of this pear is fine and juicy, white, tasty and sugary. It is an excellent variety of pears, harvested between the end of July and the first days of August, but does not keep well (if stored in the refrigerator may keep for 2-4 weeks).
- HERMANN: variety of pears that produces very large fruits when ripe, being this the typical feature of this variety of pears. The skin is yellow-green, but blushed with red on about the half of the surface. The flesh of this pear is tasty and sweet; it is harvested almost a month earlier compared to the variety William and does not keep well.
- PACKHAM’S TRIUMPH: variety of pears native to Australia; the fruits are large, roundish and very similar to the variety of pear William, but very lumpy. The flesh of this pear is fine, flavoured, juicy, sugary and slightly acidic. This variety of pears is harvested starting from the first half of September, is very resistant to handling and keeps very well.
- SANTA MARIA: typical summer variety of pears with medium-large fruits; it is harvested from mid-July to the end of October. The skin is smooth with small lenticels, yellow but blushed with red after the exposure to sunlight. The flesh of this pear is white, juicy, fine and firm; the taste is flavoured and sweet. The typical feature of this variety of pears is its high production level and early ripening.
- NASHI DELI: variety of pears deriving from the Asian tree “Pyrus pyrifolia” and native to China, where it is called “LI”; the Japanese word “NASHI”, instead means pear. This cultivar native to Korea produces a very large pear (about 400 gr.), not always regular with slight swellings at the top. The skin of this variety of pears is red-orange, while the flesh is very juicy and sweet. The pear ripens from the end of September to the beginning of October and keeps well.
- NASHI PLUMPY: variety of pears native to Korea, with very large fruits (about 400-500 gr), perfectly spherical, very similar to apples; the skin is gold-bronze when completely ripe. the flesh of this variety of pears is firm and crisp, but quite juicy and with a very strong taste and an aftertaste of walnut, therefore we can say that the fruit is particularly palatable and refreshing. This pear ripens from the end of September to the end of October.
- NASHI SHINSEI: variety of pears native to Japan, deriving from the tree of Asian pear, with medium-large fruits (about 350-400 gr.). The pear is elongated, with an orange skin, a very juicy flesh with good organoleptic characteristics, as it is sweet but also nicely bitterish. This variety of pear is among the best summer-fall ripening cultivars even though does not keep well.
Worldwide today, there are many companies that produce pears, certified companies for the production of pears, producers of pears, companies that produce organic pears, companies that deal with the trade of pears (packaging of fruit and vegetable products), retailers of pears, importers of pears, exporters of pears and wholesalers of pears that use the countless varieties of pears provided by the fruit and vegetable sector, with great success and production levels.