The production of Apples
The natural maturation of apples usually occurs from the end of August to mid-October, while the apple trade usually goes on all the year: for this reason also the wholesaling of apples and the import/export of apples are very profitable markets; the natural preservation of fruits is, in fact, very different in the diverse varieties. However, thanks to the high content of organic acids, the storage can last from one to four months. Therefore the fruits can always be put on the fruit and vegetable market for sale.
In the industrial storage of apples and the processing of apples the physical conditions are important: the apples, in fact, after being harvested have to be stored at a temperature that goes from 1.0 to 3.5 °C, and humidity must be kept between 59% and 68%. For extended storages, cold stores with controlled atmosphere are needed, where apples are stored until they are ready for the fruit and vegetable trade and therefore to be sold by wholesalers, importers of apples, exporters of apples and certified farms for apples.
The apple have great antioxidant properties and have important vitamins such as the A vitamin, the B1, B2, B6, E and C vitamins, Niacin and folic acid, together with flavonoids and carotenoids that also have an antioxidant effect.
Apples are used in all sectors, from the fruit and vegetable sector, to that of cosmetics: they are mainly used for table consumption, that can be immediate or through the preparation of tasty recipes. The apple, however is also suitable for other countless purposes: the distribution on an industrial scale through wholesalers of apples, importers and exporters of apples and fruit and vegetable farms certified for apples that are involved in the distribution and the processing of apples for various purposes; the table consumption of apples and the cosmetic use for the production of beauty creams.
The industrial employment of apples concerns the production, the distribution of apples and the sale of apples especially for the confectionary industry, for which many apples from the varieties Golden delicious, Rome Beauty, “Costa's Trade”, “Imperatore”and “Blanche Neve” are suitable.
Apples are also used for the production of apple juices, cider, apple seed oil (obtained as a by-product from the production of apple juice and cider and much used in the Northern Europe countries), distilled alcohol and fermented products.
The trademark of apples is essential because it assures that restrictive norms are applied as for the employment of chemical substances; it is a good habit to look to more and more spread organic apples or to apples with well known trademarks, while it is better to avoid "anonimous" apples, particularly when considering out of season apple varieties.
The apple is a veritable natural medicine and an effective ally in the prevention of pathologies and disorders, because it is free of fats and proteins and supplies few sugars (10g for 100g of fruit) and calories (on average 40 for an apple of 100 g). On the other hand, apples are rich of mineral salts and group B vitamins, that are good for the intestinal and mouth mucous, fight the impoverishment of nails and hair and help to overcome tiredness and lack of appetite. The citric acid and the malic acid, also present in this fruit, concur to the health of the organism, facilitating the digestion and keeping unaltered the acidity of the digestive system. The virtues of the apple, however, are not finished: the apple, in fact, is the most suitable fruit for diabetics, as it contains fructose, which is metabolized without insulin, and a percentage of fibres, among which the pectin, a substance that helps to keep controlled the glycaemia, slowing down the sugar absorption. The apple helps also to breath in a better way, thanks to the C vitamin; it fights the bad cholesterol (LDL) and helps the so-called "good" cholesterol (HDL), thanks to the pectin.
It prevents also the cardiovascular diseases and cancer, thanks to the presence of antioxidants such as bioflavonoids.
The apple is legitimately on the world fruit and vegetable market and, apart from Italy, also Asia, Russia and Europe have great importance in the production and distribution of apples; organizations of producers of apples are supposed to play an important role in Europe: in fact these are good times for them thanks to the marketing politics directed by the European Union.
The apple production worldwide reaches over 63 million of tonnes, while the Italian production of apples is of 2,142,000 tonnes: the 46% come from Alto Adige (978,000 tonnes) that with its 18,000 hectares of cultivations represent the cradle of the European production and distribution of apples.
Producers of apples have been favoured in the cultivation of this fruit, all over the world, also by a great attention given to the most successful varieties and to a renewal of apple varieties.